By Graham A. Jones
Vital Updates! This 3rd version has been reorganized and up to date all through. It encompasses new criteria and identifies and explains rising electronic applied sciences at present revolutionizing the undefined. Additions comprise: ."Broadcast fundamentals" - first rules in the event you rather are ranging from scratch .ATSC PSIP (Program and approach details Protocol) and information Broadcasting .More details on ATSC electronic tv criteria and implementation .Current television studio operations - HD and SD platforms, video servers, non-linear modifying, digital information rooms, closed captioning, and compressed bitstreams .Station and community preparations, centralcasting, and multicasting .IBOC electronic HD radio and strategies for implementation .Current radio studio operations - electronic audio workstations, software automation, and voice monitoring .and even more! * study from specialist Graham Jones of the nationwide organization of Broadcasters--the so much relied on identify in broadcast * Covers tv and radio, analog and electronic * choked with jargon-busters
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Extra info for A Broadcast Engineering Tutorial for Non-Engineers, Third Edition
Modulation Carriers and Subcarriers Sound and light waves are baseband signals that carry information that people can hear and see directly, but radio waves are used to carry sound, pictures, and other information over long distances. Therefore, radio waves are often referred to as the carrier or carrier wave. They carry information by varying one or more of their characteristics: this is called modulation. In traditional analog broadcasting, the characteristics that are varied are the amplitude and frequency, but there are several other, more complex, modulation methods used for different purposes, as discussed in the following sections.
20 3 SOUND AND VISION Light and Video Light and Color We have learned that sound is a vibration, generated by the source of sound, that produces a pressure wave, which makes the eardrum vibrate, and so we hear the sound. In a similar manner, light is a type of wave (an electromagnetic wave) that is generated by the source of light, which stimulates the retina in the eye so we can see it. Just as the amplitude of the sound wave determines the loudness of the sound, the amplitude of the light wave determines the brightness of the light, which is referred to as the luminance level.
3. More Frequent Digital Samples of an Analog Signal Four main sampling rates are used for digital audio: 32,000 samples per second, 44,100 samples per second, 48,000 samples per second, and 96,000 samples per second. 1 kHz, 48 kHz, and 96 kHz, respectively. 1 kHz, but most broadcast digital audio studio equipment uses 48 kHz sampling. 48 6 D I G I TA L A U D I O A N D V I D E O Quantizing The audio samples are converted to a series of binary numbers, ranging from 0 to the largest binary number used for the system.