By Alan Poole, George B. Leslie
First released in 1989, this booklet recognizes that new medications, foodstuff ingredients and different compounds must be conscientiously screened for poisonous side-effects. the majority of this learn is dedicated to the sensible questions of 'what toxicological stories should still we perform?' and 'how may still we practice them?' Compounds which endure toxicity trying out could be comfortably categorized as these that are meant for management to guy and people which aren't. the previous comprise prescription drugs for use medicinally or prophylactically and chemical compounds that are further to our nutrition, beverages or medication to enhance their balance, visual appeal or palatability. because it is on prescription drugs that the main finished toxicological reviews are quite often played, this e-book has been directed essentially in the direction of to toxicological evaluate of capability new medicinal drugs. the foundations and technique of toxicological evaluate of different varieties of compounds are primarily comparable.
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Will be minimal. Lighting levels used for rodent rooms are often too high, especially for albino strains, and retinal damage may result. With overhead lighting at levels which will be convenient for staff working in the room, the cages on the top tier of a rack should be protected by opaque or semi-opaque covers. g. 21 ±2 °C, and a controlled relative humidity in the range of 40-60%. Standard diets for laboratory rodents are available from several major manufacturers. They can be provided sterilised for SPF facilities, and with a full chemical analysis.
This prevents variability due to minor differences in ventilation, heat, light levels, etc. It has been shown that even with a well controlled environment other factors such as animal placement may have an effect on the development of tumours. Such a response has been described by Young (1987) who reported that, in an oncogenicity study with eugenol, increases in hepatic tumours occurred in the first five of ten contiguous cages housing the low dose male animals. He concluded that some local room effect may have been responsible for the increase in tumours in the five affected cages.
However, in a complex situation, perhaps studying an effect which occurs only rarely but is of great biological importance, it may be advisable to increase the numbers of experimental animals. Once again the desire for accuracy and sensitivity must be weighed against certain practicalities not least being that for ethical reasons, as few animals as possible are used in toxicological studies. Very often 'satellite' groups of animals are included to provide extra material for investigative studies or additional haematological or clinical chemistry parameters.