By Samuel Elmo Martin
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Extra resources for A reference grammar of Korean
And among younger Seoul speakers one hears "ney kes - ni kes" = nay, kes - ney kes 'mine - yours'; raised vowels are also heard in ni ka = ney ka 'you' and even ci ka = cey ka 'I [formal]'. Back formations (hyperurbanisms) are sometimes heard from southerners who merge ey and ay, as when cay-ii is said for cey-il 'number one'; one speaker (recorded on KBC 27:6) said selmayng = selmeyng < selmyeng 'explanation'. The dialect of Kimhay, on the southern coast, has a minimal system of vowel distinctions.
6. Cluster restrictions. �en two syllables occur in uninterrupted sequence, fewer strings of consonants are found than we expect. The occurring strings are shown in the following table. The line across the top shows the end of the prior syllable; the column at the left shows the beginning of the following syllable. At a point of intersection, an expected string is shown in lowercase boldface. An automatic replacement of a morphophonemically expected sequence is shown in boldface italic. The notion of "expected" is with respect to the analysis underlying the Romanization: when a syllable ending in -p is attached to one beginning with -p, the string that results is syllable-initial pp-, pronounced as the onset of the second syllable but optionally picking up a parasitic final -p (not the original -p) when the articulatory process is slowed down.
Consonant descriptions. The lax obstruents are weakly articulated; in initial position they are released with a slight puff of local breath (in contrast with the heavy breathing of the aspirates) but are less tense than their English counterparts: [b'] for p···. Between typically voiced sounds (vowels or semivowels, nasals, the liquid), the lax consonants are lightly voiced in rapid speech, as [a:nda] for anta 'knows'. , automatically represent the phoneme strings /pkk/, /kss/, etc. 6). The lax consonants p t k occur in syllable-final position and there they are unvoiced and unreleased [f il- 1881 Ridel was quite hesitant about the voiced allophones of the lax consonants: "sometimes ...