Download Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 34 by John D. Pickard, Nejat Akalan, Concezio Di Rocco, Vinko V. PDF

By John D. Pickard, Nejat Akalan, Concezio Di Rocco, Vinko V. Dolenc, J. Lobo Antunes, J.J.A. Mooij, Johannes Schramm, Marc Sindou

Advances and Technical criteria in Neurosurgery was once conceived in 1972byitsfoundingfathersJeanBrihaye, BernardPertuiset, FritzLoew andHugoKrayenbuuhlatacombinedmeetingoftheItalianandGerman NeurosurgicalSocietiesinTaormina. Itwasdesignedtocomplementthe Europeanpost-graduatetrainingsystemforyoungneurosurgeonsandwas ?rst released in 1974 before everything via sponsorship by means of the eu AssociationofNeurosurgicalSocieties. Allcontributionshavebeenp- lishedinEnglishtofacilitateinternationalunderstanding. Theambitionofallsuccessiveeditorialboardshasbeentoprovidean opportunityformaturescholarshipandre?ection, notconstrainedbyar- ?ciallimitsonspace. Theseriesprovidesaremarkableaccountofprogress overthepast35years, bothwithregardtoadvances, detaileddescriptions of normal operative methods and in- intensity reports of verified wisdom. Thepresentvolumeisnoexceptionandshouldappealtoboth experiencedneurosurgeonsandyoungneurosurgeonsintrainingalike. TheEditors Contents Listofcontributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII Advances current and capability destiny adjuvant concerns in high-grade astrocytic glioma 1,2 1 1 2 1 therapy. F. LEFRANC, M. RYNKOWSKI, O. DEWITTE, andR. KISS, division ofNeurosurgery, ErasmeUniversityHospital, FreeUniversityofBrussels(U. L. B. ), 2 Brussels, Belgium, LaboratoryofToxicology, InstituteofPharmacy, FreeUniversity ofBrussels(U. L. B. ), Brussels, Belgium summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . four creation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five Naturalresistanceofmigratingmalignantgliomacellstoapoptosis (radiotherapyandchemotherapy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Patternsofcelldeath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight Autophagy: apotentialTrojanhorseformalignantgliomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eleven Therapeuticbene?tsoftemozolomide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thirteen Localtherapiesforglioblastomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ongoingclinicaltrialsforglioblastomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixteen Growthfactorreceptorinhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 PI3K=Akt, mTORandNF- Binhibitors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Matrixmetalloproteinase(MMP)inhibitors(MMPI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Angiogenesistargeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Cellularandvaccinationtherapies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Genetherapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Reducingmalignantgliomacellmotilityinordertorestore pro-apoptoticdrugsensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Thesodiumpumpconstitutesapotentialtargettocombat malignantgliomas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Thesodiumpump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Cardiotonicsteroids: ligandsofthesodiumpump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 VIII Contents Thesodiumpumpisinvolvedincancercellproliferation, migrationanddeath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Braintumorstemcellsapotentialtargettocombatmalignantgliomas. . . . . . . 26 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Deepbrainstimulationforpsychiatricdisorders stateoftheart. T. E. SCHLA APFER and B. H. BEWERNICK, mind Stimulation staff, division of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, UniversityHospitalBonn, GermanyandDepartmentsofPsychiatry andMentalHealth, TheJohnsHopkinsUniversity, MD, united states summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 advent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Historyofdeepbrainstimulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 PrinciplesofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty NeurobiologyofdepressionandOCD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty-one Neurobiologyofdepression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty-one NeurobiologyofOCD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty two StudiesofDBSandpsychiatricdisorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty three Problemsintargetselection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty three Targetsindepression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty three TargetsinOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty six SafetyandadvantagesofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty seven EthicalaspectsandstandardsinDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty one Ethicalconsiderations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty one ThepathtowardsmandatorystandardsforDBSinpsychiatricdisorders. . . . . . . . fifty two Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty three ThefutureofDBS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty four References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty four criteria High?owextracranialtointracranialvascularbypassprocedureforgiantan- rysms: symptoms, surgicaltechnique, complicationsandoutcome. H. C. PATEL and P. J. KIRKPATRICK, division of educational Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke s sanatorium, UniversityofCambridge, Cambridge, united kingdom summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty one advent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty two Surgicaltechnique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty seven Cranialexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty nine Cervicalexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Saphenousveinexposure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy one Preauriculartunnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy two Contents IX Anastamoses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three Distalanastamosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three Externalcarotidanastamosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy four Closureandpostoperativecare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy seven dialogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy seven Comparisonofoutcomes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy seven Choosingthetypeofgraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy eight Longtermpatencyofgrafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine Ischaemiccomplications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine Anticoagulationrelatedmorbidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eighty one end. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Additional resources for Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 34

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2005) Dendritic cell vaccination in glioblastoma patients induces systemic and intracranial T-cell responses modulated by the local central nervous system tumor microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res 11: 5515–25 71. Lyons SA, Chung WJ, Weaver AK, et al. (2007) Autocrine glutamate signaling promotes glioma cell invasion. Cancer Res 67: 9463–71 72. Maiuri MC, Zalckvar E, Kimchi A, et al. (2007) Self-eating and self-killing: crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8: 741–52 73.

The future of DBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 38 39 40 41 41 42 43 43 43 46 47 51 51 52 53 54 54 Abstract A substantial number of patients suffering from severe neuropsychiatric disorders do not respond to conventional therapeutic approaches. Results 38 T. E. SCHLA€ PFER and B. H. BEWERNICK from functional neuroimaging research and the development of neuromodulatory treatments lead to novel putative strategies.

Phase I clinical trials [10, 51, 134, 136] have shown that vaccination using patients’ peripheral blood dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysates, cell fusions, RNA, and=or peptides can elicit antitumor immune responses against CNS neoplasms. Dendritic cell vaccination elicits T-cell-mediated antitumor activity and intratumoral CD4þ and CD8þ T-cell infiltration [10]. Although the currently available clinical data are too limited to arrive at any conclusions concerning its effectiveness, the advantages of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy and its documented safety and feasibility have stimulated further development and testing.

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