By ASM International
A entire consultant to compositions, homes, functionality, and choice of solid irons, carbon and low-alloy steels, device steels, stainless steels, and superalloys. comprises 1,328 illustrations (photographs, charts, and graphs). greater than 500 tables offer huge info for alloy designations, compositions, and mechanical and actual homes.
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Additional info for ASM Handbook - Properties and Selection Irons Steels and High Performance Alloys
Fig. 7 Mechanical properties of class 30 and class 50 gray iron as a function of section size. 072% S. Source: Ref 4 The hazards involved in pouring a given class of gray iron in a plate section thinner than recommended are discovered when the casting is machined. ) are given below (rejections were for "hard spots" that made it impossible to machine the castings by normal 8 methods): Class Rejections, % 35 Negligible 45 25 55 80-100 In marginal applications, a higher class of iron may sometimes be used if the casting is cooled slowly (in effect, increasing the section thickness) by judicious placement of flow-offs and risers.
4, the following metallographic constituents occur. The tip of the wedge is white iron (a mixture of carbide and pearlite) with a hardness greater than 50 HRC. As the iron becomes mottled (a mixture of white iron and gray iron), the hardness decreases sharply. A minimum is reached because of the occurrence of fine type D flake graphite, which usually has associated ferrite in large amounts. With a slightly lower cooling rate, the structure becomes fine type A flake graphite in a pearlite matrix with the hardness rising to another maximum on the curve.
Heat resistance depends on the stability of the microstructure. Irons used for these applications may have a ferritic structure with graphite (5% Si), a ferritic structure with stable carbides (11 to 28% Cr), or a stable austenitic structure with either spheroidal or flake graphite (18% Ni, 5% Si). For corrosion resistance, irons with high chromium (up to 28%), nickel (up to 18%), and silicon (up to 15%) are used. References cited in this section 1. R. Elliot, Cast Iron Technology, Butterworths, 1988 2.