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By D. Z. Phillips

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Ann Heberlein undersöker och ifrågasätter våra föreställningar om ondskan. Hur ska guy kunna förstå personer som Anders Eklund, Marc Dutroux och Josef Fritzl som fullt medvetande begått avskyvärda handlingar mot barn? Hur ska guy se på barnen som själva blir förövare: Harris och Klebold från Columbine excessive eller Mary Bell? Hur var den institutionaliserade ondskan vi mötte i Abu Ghraib, det forna Jugoslavien eller Förintelsen överhuvudtaget möjlig?

Och vad är det med männen egentligen? Varför begås de flesta onda handlingar av män?

Många frågor. males Ann Heberlein hjälper oss också att formulera några av svaren. Hon menar att ondskan inte alls är obegriplig. Den är inte heller ett eget väsen. Snarare har den sitt ursprung i ojämlikhet och utsatthet och den hämtar näring ur människors rädsla och maktlöshet.

Det enda obegripliga är vår ovilja att göra mer för att stoppa den.

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Extra resources for Belief, Change and Forms of Life

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But do religious beliefs have a distinctive grammatical status? ' 10 But if, for example, 'talking to God' functions in ways which are importantly different from, let us say, talking to another person, we cannot say that we have the concept of talking which is used for religious, as well as other purposes. So this short-way with our difficulties does not succeed. Another, more subtle, but equally unsatisfactory attempt at a short-way with our difficulties can be found in a further attempt to distinguish between language-games and practices.

This too savours of an explanation. It makes it look as if the rites are the means by which something is expressed, as though there were a distinction between means and ends involved. Speaking of burning an effigy, Wittgenstein says, 'Burning an effigy. Kissing the picture of a loved one. ' 33 A man does not smash the portrait of his beloved in order to express his anger. This is the form his anger takes. Whether the rites are regarded as erroneous scientific beliefs or as psychologically instrumental, these explanations take us away from the important features of the rites which philosophy should concentrate on.

0. Mounce puts forward the proposed distinction between language-games and practices as follows: Knowing Where to Stop 23 When we speak of our certainty that another person is in pain, for example, we play a different game from when we speak of our certainty that there is a table in the next room. Now . . it would be difficult to suppose that what Wittgenstein here means by a language game is anything like a practice such as conducting scientific experiments or worshipping in church. For example, one may speak of people coming together to conduct a scientific experiment but hardly of their coming together to exercise the concept of pain; one may speak of a person giving up religious worship but not of his giving up the use of the notion of an object.

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