By Koichi Hagimoto
In 1898, either Cuba and the Philippines completed their independence from Spain after which instantly grew to become pursuits folks expansionism. This publication offers a comparative research of late-nineteenth-century literature and background in Cuba and the Philippines, concentrating on the writings of José Martí and José Rizal to bare shared anti-imperial struggles.
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Extra info for Between Empires: Martí, Rizal, and the Intercolonial Alliance
It appears that Rizal prefers a peaceful campaign for sociopolitical reforms over an immediate independence from Spain. In the Noli, he scrutinizes the “cancer,” but the disease is neither symbolically nor literally healed. e. freedom): Because I desire your good health, which is ours, and because I seek the best treatment for you, I will do with you what the ancients did with their sick: to expose them on the steps of their temple so that everyone who came to invoke the divinity might perhaps propose a remedy.
Rizal characterizes her as this divine image of woman, the most beautiful idealization of the most ideal of creatures, this poetic creation of Christianity, which brings together the two most beautiful states of woman, virgin and mother. 30 ● Between Empires esa imagen divinizada de la mujer, la idealización más hermosa de la más ideal de las criaturas, á esa creación poética del Cristianismo, que reúne en sí los dos más bellos estados de la mujer, virgen y madre. (203) It is worth noting that the author alludes to her beauty in terms of the Christian and European prototype—“the whiteness of cotton”—as opposed to the local Filipino model.
Don’t forget it; you know the King Don Felipe the Fifth. Say ‘Felipe,’ and add nas to it, which in Latin means islands of Indians. Pero mujer, ¿no puedes pronunciar: Felipe? No lo olvides, sabe que el Rey Don Felipe . . quinto . . Dí Felipe, y añádele nas que en latín signiﬁca islas de indios. (217) 38 ● Between Empires In response, she articulates, “Fe . . lipe, Felipe . . ” (“Fe . . lipe, Felipe . . ”) (217). Her husband is in a complete daze: why does she say “Felipenas” instead of “Felipinas”?