Download Bicycle Design: An Illustrated History by Tony Hadland, Hans-Erhard Lessing PDF

By Tony Hadland, Hans-Erhard Lessing

The bicycle ranks as essentially the most enduring, most generally used cars on this planet, with greater than a thousand million produced in the course of nearly 200 years of biking background. This booklet deals an authoritative and accomplished account of the bicycle's technical and ancient evolution, from the earliest velocipedes (invented to fill the necessity for horseless shipping in the course of a scarcity of oats) to trendy racing motorcycles, mountain motorcycles, and recumbents. It strains the bicycle's improvement when it comes to fabrics, ergonomics, and automobile physics, as performed by way of inventors, marketers, and manufacturers.

Written by way of best bicycle historians and generously illustrated with historical drawings, designs, and pictures, Bicycle layout describes the foremost phases within the evolution of the bicycle, starting with the counterintuitive thought of balancing on wheels in line, throughout the improvement of tension-spoked wheels, oblique drives (employing levers, pulleys, chains, and chainwheels), and pneumatic tires. The authors research the extra improvement of the bicycle for such particular reasons as racing, portability, and all-terrain use; they usually describe the evolution of bicycle elements together with seats, transmission, brakes, lighting fixtures (at first candle-based), and providers (racks, panniers, saddlebags, baby seats, and sidecars). they give thought to not just commercially winning designs but additionally advertisement mess ups that pointed the best way to destiny technological advancements. they usually debunk a few myths approximately bicycles -- for instance, the unsuitable yet often-cited concept that Leonardo sketched a chain-drive motorbike in his notebooks. regardless of the bicycle's lengthy heritage and mass allure, its technological background has been ignored. This quantity, with its attractive and wide-ranging assurance, fills that hole. it will likely be the start line for all destiny histories of the bicycle.

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The increasing popularity of figure skating on ice created a desire to perform the same maneuvers on roller skates. The roller skates that had been constructed so far worked well only in a straight line, and taking curves required the application of great force. An American mechanic and furniture dealer named James Plimpton solved the problem with his “rockable” four-wheeled skates (US patent 37,305 of 1863). 19 Above: Couple on Legrand rollers on sidewalk (Paulin-Désormeaux 1853). Below: Plimpton rollers were leased at rinks and were not sold (National Museum of Roller Skating).

Reportedly the caricaturist Robert Cruikshank and his printer, James Sidebethem, clad as dandies, collided while riding their velocipedes down Highgate Hill, and Sidebethem later died. This unfortunate chain of events was seen as the main reason for the velocipede’s loss of popularity. Cruikshank’s numerous droll sketches of dandies on velocipedes made the machines and their riders a laughing stock (Spencer 1883, 15–17; also see appendix B below). On the basis of a Pavement Act already in force, magistrates forbade riding on the sidewalks (known in Britain as “pavements”), fining violators £2.

Johnson’s patent drawing shows that his velocipede was modeled after a French one, so the unidentified foreigner could have been Jean Garcin as easily as Karl Drais. ” The steering bar shown in his patent drawing looped out over the front wheel, attaching loosely to the front axle; presumably it could be rotated 120º to serve as a stand for parking. 13 Denis Johnson’s patent specification drawing of November 1818. In Johnson’s second-generation velocipedes, the steering arrangement was different.

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