By L. Elena Pekhtasheva, N. Anatoly Neverov, E. Gennady Zaikov
The factor of biodamages contains quite a lot of medical and sensible projects linked to safeguard of uncooked fabrics and items opposed to harm via micro organism, fungi, bugs and rodents in the course of long term garage, creation, transportation and operation. The biodegradation is used for degradation and usage of tired fabrics and articles. This learn is pressing for ecology and the fight opposed to environmental illness. The biodamage challenge is either scientifically complicated and essentially varied. Scientifically, it really is in keeping with the information of fabric technological know-how, biology and chemistry.
The first aim of this booklet is to supply distinct details at the 3 interrelated components: micro organism and fungi (the resource of biodamages); bugs and rodents (materials and items depredators); and fabrics and items broken via residing organisms. the main glossy information on morphology and body structure of biodegrading microorganisms are offered. the second one goal of this publication is to supply the reader with a systematisation of organic degradation on either average and artificial fabrics and items (plastics, fabric, fibres, leather-based and fur, wooden and so on). difficulties of utilisation of polymeric wastes utilizing microorganisms are mentioned and major security equipment and expertise for uncooked fabrics and semi-products opposed to biodamages are proven. sensible advice for fight opposed to biodamage of fabrics by way of bugs (moth, leather-based beetles, wood-fretters, cockroaches and termites) and rodents (mice and rats) are given.
Since 1960 the biodamage challenge got the respectable prestige as a wide foreign and sensible course on the junction of sciences and perform of mankind and pooling efforts of varied experts. the ultimate goal of this e-book is to demonstrate that the matter of biodamages is particularly actual at the present time since it is correct to many facets of our daily lives.
This quantity is meant to be a pragmatic consultant on biodamage and biodegradation of polymeric fabrics and a brief connection with scholars and researchers from academia and the industry.
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Extra info for Biodamage and Biodegradation of Polymeric Materials : New Frontiers
Oxidoreductases are redox enzymes. This class comprises multiple enzymes, which catalyse redox reactions involved in energy exchange (respiration, fermentation) in microorganisms. Among oxidoreductases, oxygenases play the specific role in the degradation of many industrial materials. Initially, this process involves the biodgradation of hydrophobic, non-polar hydrocarbon materials and materials formed by closed-chain (or ring) compounds. Oxygenases comprise enzymes which catalyse 21 Biodamage and Biodegradation of Polymeric Materials: New Frontiers direct oxygen addition to the oxidised substrate.
Isomerases transform organic compounds into their isomers, a process that is associated with the intramolecular transfer of radicals, atoms and groups of atoms. Ligases (synthetases) catalyse the synthesis of complex organic compounds from simpler ones. There is a clear correlation between the type of damaged material and the ability of the microorganism which has caused the damage to produce enzymes which are able to cleave the main types of bonds in that substrate material. However, in general, many enzymes participate in degradation of a material.
2 Temperature of the Medium The temperature of the medium is one of the main factors which defines the ability of a microorganism to develop and the extent to which it will be able to do so. Each 34 Bacteria and Microscopic Fungi – The Sources of Biodamage group of microorganisms can only develop within a specific temperature range, which is narrow for some of them and relatively broad (of the order of tens of degrees) for others. Microorganisms can grow in a wide range of temperatures. The Serpula lacrymans fungus, which damages timber, is unable to grow at a temperature below 8 °C or above 27 °C; its optimal development is observed at 23 °C.