Download Biological physics. Energy, information, life by Philip Nelson PDF

By Philip Nelson

Physics and engineering departments are development study courses in organic physics, yet in the past there has no longer been a synthesis of this dynamic box on the undergraduate point. Biological Physics specializes in new ends up in molecular vehicles, self-assembly, and single-molecule manipulation that experience revolutionized the sphere in recent times, and integrates those subject matters with classical effects. The textual content additionally presents foundational fabric for the rising box of nanotechnology. The textual content is outfitted round a self-contained middle aimed at undergraduate scholars who've had 365 days of calculus-based physics. extra "Track-2" sections comprise extra complex fabric for senior physics majors and graduate students.

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The two pieces have two new surfaces. Let Σ be the work needed to create these new surfaces, divided by their total area. The analogous quantity for liquid water is the surface tension. The heat of vaporization of water, Qvap , is the energy per unit volume we must add to liquid water (just below its boiling point) to convert it completely to steam (just above its boiling point). 5. Problems [[Student version, December 8, 2002]] 29 That is, the heat of vaporization is the energy needed to separate every molecule from every other one.

Indeed the atoms making up a molecule carry a definite amount of stored energy, which is said to reside in “chemical bonds” between the atoms. 3). 4 on page 7. Molecules generally prefer to indulge in heat-liberating (exothermic) reactions over heat-accepting (endothermic) ones, but we can nevertheless get them to adopt higher-energy states by adding energy from outside. For example, we can split (or hydrolyze) water by passing electrical current through it. More precisely, Chapter 8 will show that chemical reactions proceed in the direction that tends to lower the free energy, just as in the osmotic machine.

For example, Chapter 5 will describe how tiny organisms, even single bacteria, carry out purposeful motion in search of food, enhancing their survival, despite the randomizing effect of their surroundings. We will need to expand and formalize our ideas in Chapters 6 and 8. Then we’ll be ready to understand the self-assembly of complicated structures in Chapter 8. Finally, Chapters 10–12 will see how two paragons of orderly behavior, namely the motion of molecular machines and nerve impulses, emerge from the disorderly world of single-molecule dynamics.

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