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In the gen accumulates beyond this threshold confermentative stage organisms like Clostridium centration, the anaerobic oxidation of fatty acsp. or Eubacterium sp. produce fatty acids, ids will get endergonic and would not proceed C02,and hydrogen from carbohydrates. In the (for details, see Chapter 22, this volume). acetogenic stage acetogens such as Syntropho- Whereas hydrogen prevents p-oxidation of bacter wolinii or Syntrophomonas wolfei pro- fatty acids by acetogens already at very low H2 duce acetate, CO,, and hydrogen or acetate partial pressure, much higher concentrations and hydrogen by anaerobic oxidation of pro- of acetate in the millimolar range are required pionate and n-butyrate (MCINERNEY, 1988).

11) for The metabolites of the fermentative and the anaerobic treatment of a wastewater with acetogenic phase of anaerobic wastewater carbohydrates as pollutants the gas compositreatment systems, mainly acetate and tion should theoretically be 50% methane and CO, H2, are substrates for methanogens and 50% CO, (Eq. 12). for sulfate reducers. If wastewater with a high sulfate concentration is treated in a methane 1MOl C6H1,06+3 MOl C& 3 Mol co, (12) reactor, the population may gradually shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens towards Since CO, is increasingly soluble in water with hydrogenotrophic sulfate reducers, due to a decreasing temperature and with an increasing more favorable K , value for hydrogen of the pH, CO, reacts to bicarbonatekarbonate, the sulfate reducers.

5 ) Anaerobic treatment systems are more expensive to construct, but less expensive to operate than aerobic treatment systems. 3 Aerobic or Anaerobic Hydrolysis of Biopolymers Kinetic Aspects Hydrolysis of biopolymers and fermentation or respiration of the monomers may be catalyzed by strictly anaerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or aerobic microorganisms. , small protein molecules, dextran) biopolymers are insoluble and form fibers (cellulose), grains (starch), or globules (casein after enzymatic precipitation) or can be melted or emulsified like fat.

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