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By E. V. Wong

The textbook for mobile and molecular biology classes.

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Naturally, the vitamins we are familiar with are those required by humans. The specific roles of these vitamins and the consequences of not having enough of them are discussed later in this textbook, as the enzymes that they work with are introduced in detail. Chapter 3, Bioenergetics, v. 01 Sep09 Page 35 Membranes: Using this book: This book is designed to be used in both introductory and advanced cell biology courses. The primary text is generally on the left side of the vertical divider, and printed in black.

Research over the last two decades have identified lipid “rafts” that appear to be specific for embedding particular proteins. Since they are unanchored lipids, the rafts can move laterally within the membrane just like most individual lipid molecules. Finally, there are different ratios of the lipids between the two layers of the bilayer. The cytoplasmic face of every membrane will have different associations and functions than the noncytoplasmic face, so why should we expect the lipid composition to be the same?

The aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) transfers its acetyl group onto a serine residue on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This stops the production of inflammation-producing prostaglandins and thromboxanes by COX-2. Page 31 Competitive inhibition is perhaps the simplest to understand. The inhibitor molecule competes directly with the substrate for the active site of an unbound enzyme. If an inhibitor binds to the active site, the substrate is unable to do so until the inhibitor has vacated the site. Thus, one could potentially overwhelm competitive inhibition with sufficiently larger concentrations of substrate so that the probablility that the enzyme bumps into a substrate to bind becomes exceeding large compared to the probablility of bumping into an inhibitor.

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