Download Cliffs Quick Review Anatomy and Physiology (Cliffs quick by Phillip E. Pack PDF

By Phillip E. Pack

A complete evaluate consultant that will help you refresh your learn. This consultant is especially worthwhile for midterms and ultimate assessments, condensing a semester's worthy of data into one concise quantity.

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DNA controls the cell in this manner because it contains codes for polypeptides. Many polypeptides are enzymes that regulate chemical reactions and influence the resulting characteristics of the cell. Thus, from the molecular viewpoint, traits are the end products of metabolic processes regulated by enzymes. A gene is defined as the DNA segment that codes for a particular enzyme or other polypeptide (one-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis). The process that describes how enzymes and other proteins are made from DNA is called protein synthesis.

Stratified epithilieum is named after the shape of the outermost cell layer. Thus, stratified squamous epithelium has outermost layers of squamous cells, even though some inner layers consist of cuboidal or columnar cells. These and other epithelial tissues are illustrated in Figure 3-1. Glandular epithelium Glandular epithelium forms two kinds of glands: ■ Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. For example, the thyroid gland secretes the hormone thyroxin into the bloodstream, where it is distributed throughout the body, stimulating an increase in the metabolic rate of body cells.

Again, the tRNA in the first position is released, the ribosome moves over one codon position, and the second tRNA position is vacant. ■ The process continues, as new tRNAs bring more amino acids. As each new tRNA arrives, the polypeptide chain is elongated by one new amino acid, growing in sequence and length as dictated by the codons on the mRNA. ) Eventually, a “stop” codon is encountered, and the ribosome subunits and polypeptide are released. Once the polypeptide is released, interactions among the amino acids give it its special three-dimensional shape.

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