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Additional info for Clinical Functional MRI: Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging (Medical Radiology Diagnostic Imaging)
In some analysis packages, anatomical data sets do not only serve as a structural reference for the visualization of functional information but are often also used to improve the functional analysis itself, for example, by restricting statistical data analysis to gray matter voxels. The preprocessing of high-resolution anatomical data sets and their role in functional data analysis will be described in Sect. 4. Since some data analysis steps depend on the details of the experimental paradigm, the next section shortly describes the two most frequently used experimental designs.
Without special treatment, the mean response can no longer be easily computed for each condition. As a consequence, the statistical power to detect mean differences may be substantially reduced, especially for short blocks and events. This problem does not occur when correlation analysis is used since this method enables explicit incorporation of the gradual increase and decrease of the expected BOLD signal. The predicted time courses in Fig. 15 can be used as the reference function in a correlation analysis.
Using a pseudo-inverse or SVD approach, we would now obtain three beta values (plus the constant), one for the rest condition, one for main condition 1 and one for main condition 2. While the values of beta weights might not be interpretable, correct inferences of contrasts can be obtained if an additional restriction is met, typically that the sum of the contrast coefﬁcients equals 0. To test whether main condition 1 differs signiﬁcantly from the rest condition, the contrast c = [-1 +1 0] would now be used.