By Werner Kahle, Michael Frotscher, Ursula Vielkind
A well-balanced blend of a medical textual content, reference fabric and multicolor illustrations make this assessment of fearful process anatomy eminently valuable for college kids and practitioners alike. the recent variation contains revised indexes, up-to-date nomenclature, and up to date learn effects.
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Extra info for Colour Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy: Nervous System and Sensory Organs v. 3
The myelin sheath in the CNS (B) shows distinct differences as compared to the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves (see p. 41, B). Whereas the Schwann cell in the PNS myelinates only one axon, an oligodendrocyte (B9) in the CNS myelinates several axons and will later remain connected with several internodes via cytoplasmic bridges. The extent and shape of the cell becomes clear when visualizing the internodes as being unfurled (C). The mechanism of the myelination process is unknown. The external mesaxon forms an external bulge (B10) starting from the cytoplasmic bridge.
Most neurotransmitters do not bind to ligand-gated channels but to receptors coupled to G protein. The main difference between the two types of receptors is in the speed of the synaptic response. In the case of ligand-gated ion channels, the activation causes a rapid synaptic potential lasting only for milliseconds. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors results in responses that last seconds or minutes. G proteins regulate enzymes that produce intracellular messenger substances. These have an effect on ion channels or, via regulatory proteins, on the expression of genes.
An excess or deficiency in transmitters can be created in the nerve cells, leading to changes in motor or mental activity. Changing transmitter synthesis and degradation is not the only way neuropharmaceuticals can influence the synaptic transmission; they can also act on the receptors as transmitter agonists or antagonists. Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. Neuronal Systems 33 8 4 9 3 Dopaminergic neurons Noradrenergic neurons Serotoninergic neurons Peptidergic neurons 1 6 2 10 13 14 12 11 A Monoaminergic and peptidergic groups of neurons in the brain 15 B Cholinergic groups of neurons in the basal forebrain, including the cholinergic innervation of cerebral cortex and hippocampus Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol.