By Nicolas Hardt
The ebook covers the full scope of traumatology within the very important border quarter among the neuro- and viscerocranium. It makes a speciality of diagnostic operation making plans and the interdisciplinary administration of craniofacial accidents.
In the 1st half, the class and epidemiology of craniofacial fractures are defined and particular difficulties are mentioned. the second one half offers with radiologic diagnostics and simple neurosurgical measures. the most a part of the publication covers operative ideas and a step by step description of demanding and gentle tissue reconstruction after craniofacial trauma. issues of craniofacial accidents and overdue reconstruction of craniofacial defects, together with computer-assisted making plans, are coated within the ultimate part.
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Additional info for Craniofacial Trauma: Diagnosis and Management
4 Skull Base and Fracture Levels in the Region of the Septum Among the subcranial fractures, the Le Fort II and III fractures and the Wassmund III and IV fractures differ in distance to the anterior skull base (Becker and Austermann 1981; Joos et al. 2001). In the Le Fort II fracture, the naso-septal fracture line runs closer to the base through the superior Fig. 7 Relation between anterior cranial base and subcranial midface fractures in the region of the nasal septum (mod. a. Schwenzer and Ehrenfeld 2002).
The following trauma compartments (midface fracture levels according to Le Fort and Wassmund) with frontobasal involvement are differentiated: • Subcranial midface fractures – fontobasal fractures Fracture levels: II/III/I + II + III/II + III • Craniofacial fractures – frontobasal fractures Fracture levels: II + VI/III + IV/II + III + IV • Frontofacial fractures – frontobasal fractures Fracture level: IV (Fig. 1 Frontobasal: Frontofacial Fractures Fig. a. Weerda 1995) Fractures of the frontofacial level (fracture level IV) include skull base fractures in the region of the anterior cranial fossa with involvement of the neighboring aerated sinuses and fractures of the frontal and glabella structures, frequently including the orbital roof.
Collaterally the facial and dorsolateral wall of the maxillary sinus, as well as the orbital floor and the medial, more seldomly the lateral orbital walls, are demolished. 1992). Fig. 8 Lateral midface fracture with posterior rotation of the zygomatic bone and fracture of the zygomatic arch and the lateral orbital wall (arrow). Hematosinus maxillaris on the left side Fig. 9 Lateral midface impression fracture on the right side with marked medial and posterior dislocation of the zygomatic bone into the right maxillary sinus (arrow).