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By Robert A Scalapino

III. the preferred foundation OF EARLY eastern PARTIES
IV. the character OF EARLY get together association AND TACTICS
V. THE EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL events IN eastern INSTITUTIONAL constitution AND idea, 1890-1913
VI. THE EVOLUTION OF POLITICAL events IN eastern INSTITUTIONAL constitution AND conception, 1913-1932
VII. the advance OF eastern CAPITALISM AND ITS effect at the social gathering MOVEMENT
X. the matter OF eastern DEMOCRACY

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Increasingly, however, the impossibility of carrying out this program in its entirety was made clear. As we have noted, there had long been a minority who were prepared to grant the inevita­ bility and benefits of the commercial trend. The bakufu group in a position of authority had finally had to accept foreign trade and the necessity of opening the country, and was placed some­ what unwillingly in the position of leading this movement. To strengthen its position it attempted to develop a court-bakufu coalition with the support of as many han as possible, on the prin­ ciple of sabaku-kaikoku ( Support the bakufu-Open the country ) , to counteract the principle of sonno-joi.

The bakufu class strove desperately after 186o to mend its relations with the Throne by abandoning hostility and marrying the new shogun to an Imperial Princess, but the signs of its growing weakness were omnipresent. In 1 862, the sankin kotai system was modified to require the tozama lords to spend only one hundred days in residence at Edo in the course of three years, and the hostage system was abandoned. This personal surveillance had been the cement which had held the bakufu together. Subse­ quently, the scramble among the western daimyo for quarters in Kyoto was spectacular, and all presented themselves at court, something long since prohibited.

The writings of these men were attempts to reassert traditional values in religion and politics. Haltom says of their works : "The contents of the old literature are so interpreted as to furnish the means of a nationalistic propaganda and, more particularly, as an instrument of attack on the Tokugawa usurpation. " Daniel C. Haltom, The Political Philoso­ phy of Modern Shinto, Part II of Vol. XLIX of TAS], Keio University, 1 922, pp. 1 0-1 1 . 20 inextricably with this panorama of the past, and hence they could not avoid being prisoners, in some degree, of the forms that Japanese nationalism took.

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