By Robert Elsner
First revealed in 1983, this publication matters the comparative physiological diversifications of vertebrate animals, in particular mammals, to cessation of respiring. those diversifications have been initially pointed out in species residing in aquatic habitats. The argument is gifted that the normal divers exhibit a well-developed and comfortably studied instance of a extra normal defence opposed to asphyxia. the subjects thought of contain the diving reaction, metabolic and cardiovascular diversifications, adaptations in resistance to asphyxia, neural keep an eye on mechanisms, which govern the breathing and circulatory responses, perinatal asphyxia, functions to the human species and clinical implications. The book's objective is to acquaint its readers with a few advances caused by learn during this box.
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Extra resources for Diving and Asphyxia: A Comparative Study of Animals and Man (Monographs of the Physiological Society)
1959) Cohn& Moses (1966) Allen (1938a) diving time, the larger members being capable of longer durations than the smaller. Their brain weights represent a smaller fraction of total body weight, and this characteristic might account for the differences (Ferren & Eisner, 1979). Aerobic oxidative metabolism in skeletal and heart muscle in some marine mammals is supported by high concentrations of myoglobin. , 1942a). The storage thus achieved is considerable, since skeletal muscle constitutes about 40% of the fat-free body mass.
Fig. 5 illustrates the result of one experiment. In this instance the seal was experimentally immersed for 7 min. The animal was lightly restrained and had become accustomed to the procedure, lying quietly throughout the dive. The bradycardia and simultaneous abrupt fall of blood flow almost to zero at the beginning of the dive are evident. Similar indications of blood flow redistribution were recorded from chronically implanted transducers in diving penguins (Millard, Johansen & Milsom, 1973).
A similar production of lactate caused by ischaemia in dogs is associated with coronary vasodilation as well as dilation of the heart (Scheuer & Brachfeld, 1966; Lekven, Mj^s & Kjekshus, 1973). Overall, the evidence shows that the seal heart is resistant to hypoxia if minimum blood flow is maintained, but it has poor tolerance to ischaemia. It adapts to diving asphyxia by a greatly reduced work load and consequent lowered oxygen require42 Resistance of organs and tissues to asphyxia ment, and an enhanced capability for anaerobic metabolism.