By P.L. Divenyi, S. Greenberg and G. Meyer, Editors
That speech is a dynamic technique moves as a tautology: no matter if from the viewpoint of the talker, the listener, or the engineer, speech is an motion, a legitimate, or a sign constantly altering in time. but, simply because phonetics and speech technology are offspring of classical phonology, speech has been seen as a chain of discrete events-positions of the articulatory equipment, waveform segments, and phonemes. even though this attitude has been sarcastically often called "beads on a string", from the time of Henry Sweet's nineteenth century treatise virtually as much as our days experts of speech technology and speech expertise have endured to conceptualize the speech sign as a series of static states interleaved with transitional parts reflecting the quasi-continuous nature of vocal construction. This booklet, a suite of papers of which every seems at speech as a dynamic procedure and highlights one among its particularities, is devoted to the reminiscence of Ludmilla Andreevna Chistovich. on the outset, it used to be deliberate to be a Chistovich festschrift yet, unfortunately, she passed on to the great beyond a couple of months ahead of the ebook went to press. The 24 chapters of this quantity testify to the big impact that she and her colleagues have had over the 4 many years because the booklet in their 1965 monograph.IOS Press is a world technological know-how, technical and clinical writer of fine quality books for teachers, scientists, and pros in all fields. a number of the parts we post in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and knowledge structures -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All elements of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The wisdom economic climate -Urban reports -Arms keep an eye on -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences
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Extra resources for Dynamics of Speech Production and Perception, Volume 374 NATO Science Series: Life and Behavioural Sciences (Nato Science)
When the muscle length reaches the value of O, muscle activation, and thus force generation, cease. The point in space at which force is zero defines an equilibrium-point . The EP hypothesis provides a parsimonious account of how the central nervous system plans and executes movements. EP control bypasses the problem of “inverse dynamics” . It suggests that the brain finds a unique and smooth trajectory by letting that path be automatically determined by the dynamics of the physiological system.
Its return path and speed of response are determined by its stiffness. The EP hypothesis assumes that voluntary movements result from shifting the equilibrium-point of the motor system. The mechanism is formalized in the O model . The input to the model is O, the threshold length of a given muscle at which motorneuron recruitment begins. The neural signal driving muscle activation is determined by the difference between O and reflex information on the muscle’s current length and its rate of change.
Finally, these articulatory forces cause a change in articulatory state, which is then transformed into a new tract-variable state, and so on. , ; see also ), there are other possible candidates. , formant frequencies). However, the distinction between auditory/acoustic and tract-variable coordinate spaces is not always a clear one, since tract-variables define the locations and degrees of the constrictions produced by the gestures comprising a given speech sequence, and these constriction variables are primarily responsible for shaping the formant patterns of the vocal tract.