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By Michael de Vrese, J. Schrezenmeir (auth.), Ulf Stahl, Ute E. B. Donalies, Elke Nevoigt (eds.)

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Acidophilus and Bifidobacterium easily grow in the ice cream mixture, and produce acidity. Even if the final freezing of the ice cream mixture is accompanied by a considerable loss in the bacterial count, bacterial concentrations of ≥ 107 cfu/g can be easily obtained in probiotic ice creams. These products have a good storability. In one study [260] probiotic ice cream was made by fermenting a standard ice cream mix with strains of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum and then freezing the mix in a batch freezer.

These include chemical composition, water activity, oxygen concentration, and redox potential, pH value, acid concentration, and synergetic or antagonistic interactions between conventional starter cultures and added probiotics. Additionally, the quality of probiotic foods should not be less than that of corresponding conventional products. To avoid that metabolically active probiotic cultures adulterate taste, flavor, consistency, and shelf-life of the food through post-acidification, lypolysis and/or proteolysis probiotic milk products should be stored at ≤ 8 ◦ C [230].

At least there are some experimental indications as to the beneficial effects of inulin, oligofructose, or galactooligosaccharides, given alone or as a synbioticum, in the case of experimental colitis in rats [304], of rotavirus-induced, C. difficile-associated and other diarrheas [303, 305], and of refractory enterocolitis [306]. The administration of 12 g/day oligofructose for prevention of traveler’s diarrhoea showed moderate success [307], while the frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrheas in the elderly [308] or children [309], infectious diarrheas in children [310] as well as diarrheas associated with an irritable colon [311] could not be reduced significantly.

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