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By Villadsen, John

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Thus, in order to find true stoichiometries and rate data that can be extrapolated to other process conditions, one needs to do steady-state CSTR experiments despite the difficulties associated with this type of operation. As a final note, none of the above experimental difficulties are encountered in enzymatic reactions which change from one steady state to the next almost immediately after the experimental conditions have changed. In Eq. 1), there is one carbon source (glucose), and the stoichiometry is normalized to describe the conversion of one C-mol glucose to four carboncontaining compounds, each normalized to one C-mol.

25 h 1 where the effluent ethanol concentration e changes dramatically, one may use the liquid-phase ethanol concentration (or less accurately the gas-phase ethanol concentration) to control the reactor at a desired steady-state value of D. This is called a productostat [7], and again a crude model for the kinetics is used to translate the measured value of ethanol concentration to the desired value of D. The models for different control systems are further discussed in Chapter 15. H. (1969a) Katabolit J.

3% of the total glucose used. One concludes that the pathways to PDO (the last two steps from glycerol to PDO) have to be opened up, perhaps by increasing the level of the two enzymes that catalyze the two steps. Also, a significant (but not an alarming) amount of glucose is used to maintain a healthy culture, essentially by producing more free energy by conversion of glucose to CO2. The PDO fermentation process is a landmark in the progress of “white biotechnology,” the use of sustainable processes to produce a range of bulk chemicals.

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