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By Chris Sunley, Mike Smith

This consultant presents quick revision notes, with self-check questions and grade-boosting tutorials in a pocket-sized pack.

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3 Balance the equation (making sure that there are the same number of each type of atom on each side of the equation). calcium carbonate Æ CaCO3 Æ calcium oxide + CaO + carbon dioxide CO2 In this example the equation already balances. e. they exist as molecules containing two atoms. ● 1 hydrogen 2 H2 3 2H2 + + + oxygen O2 O2 + Element Molecule Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Chlorine H2 O2 N2 Cl2 Æ Æ Æ water H 2O 2H2O Æ 39 FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS (4) Ionic Equations ● ● Ionic equations, as the name suggests, are used for showing reactions between ions (charged atoms or molecules).

4 Respiration. (1) Combustion. (1) 5 Chemicals that kill pests (organisms that damage the crops, usually by eating them). (1) Pesticides are usually insecticides but include others such as fungicides that kill fungal pests. 6 Climate or weather changes/ flooding. (1) 7 It reduces the amount of UV (ultraviolet) radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. UV radiation causes tanning but also skin cancer. (1) Many exam candidates get confused between ozone damage and the greenhouse effect. 8 (a) (1) The ‘inverted’ pyramid is blue tits caused by the oak tree being caterpillars much larger than the other oak tree organisms involved.

If the liquid is cooled further, the particles move even more slowly and eventually the forces of attraction bring the particles into a pattern and a solid forms. 43 STRUCTURE AND BONDING (2) Atomic Structure ● ● All atoms (except the simplest hydrogen atom) are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom and the electrons are arranged in ‘shells’ around the nucleus. MASS NUMBER symbol for The atomic structure of an atom can be (the number of the element protons + neutrons) described using two numbers: the atomic M number, the number of protons (or the A ATOMIC NUMBER number of electrons); and the mass number, (the number of protons which equals the number of electrons) the number of protons and neutrons.

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