By Kanji Kajiwara; Yoshihito Osada
This significant reference paintings, overlaying the $64000 fabrics technological know-how sector of gels, is a translation of a eastern guide. The three-volume set is prepared to hide the next: basics, services, and environmental matters. Gels guide additionally includes an appendix, whole references, and knowledge on gel compounds. lately, polymer gels have attracted many medical researchers, doctors, and pharmaceutical, chemical, and agricultural engineers to the speedily becoming box. Gels are thought of to be some of the most promising fabrics within the twenty first Century. they're particular in that th. Read more...
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Extra info for Gels Handbook, Volume 1
Asakura Shoten, p. 129. 4 Kuroyanagi, Y. (1995). Frontier of artificial skin, Kobunshi, 44: 570. , et al. (1993; 1994). Development of hybrid artificial cornea 1,2,3, Ganla', 44: 247; 44: 1107; 45: 614. 6 Yamauchi, A. (1977). Composition and structure of gels, Protein, Nucleic Acid and Enzymes, 22: (13), 46. 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYMER GELS Polymer gels are created from two components, polymer networks and solvents. The polymer network envelops the liquid and prevents it from escaping. In other words, the gel polymer network plays the role of a container that holds a large amount of solvent.
2 CLASSIFICATION BY CROSSLINK FORMATIONS The classification of crosslink formation can be largely divided into those formed by a chemical reaction (chemical gels) and those formed by aggregation caused by hydrogen bonding or ionic bonding, and by the physical entanglement of polymer chains (physical gels) [1, 2]. Figure 1 shows an example of crosslinking formation. Generally, gels formed by chemical bonding cannot be dissolved again, and are thus called irreversible gels. 2 Classification by Crosslink Formations 15 Crosslink point / / elation by ~ covalent bonds : / Free radical polymerization Example: acrylamide gel r ---(- CH2-CH)-)-m--mCH2-CH-(-CH2-CH, C=O C=O C=O NH2 NH NH2 I I I I CH2 I NH I C=O I --CHzCH-......
The gelation mechanism of carrageenan, a polysaccharide from red seaweed, involves first forming bonds between polymer chains, and then forming double helix domains by cooling (coil-domain transition). After this, double helices aggregate through counter ions, such as the K + ion, and they are thought to gel by forming crosslinked domains (double-helix association). 2 Classification by Crosslink Formations 23 9Ion / Example:carrageenan~ ~ . _"~ ~ ~ v Egg-boxjunction Example:arginicacid Fig. 3 Formation of helices.