By Igor Galaev and Bo Mattiasson.
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Additional info for Handbook Of Plastics Analysis
Here, remarkable amounts of data can be obtained from a relatively short test. A further complication of creep is that it is nonlinear in strain, just as the stress–strain relationship is nonlinear for plastics. Since plastics are typically subjected to large deformations during their life, it is unfortunately essential to characterize this phenomenon. This phenomenon is best seen in the classic isochronous stress–strain curve which plots stress–strain relationships at several times, decades apart.
Viscosity is dependent on temperature, and the time required for a sample to reach equilibrium temperature is often the most time-consuming step. Calibration of a rotational viscometer with a standard should be done regularly and recorded. ASTM D-2196 considers a viscometer calibrated if the viscosity reading is within Æ5% of the stated viscosity. Falling-Ball Viscometers The falling-ball viscometer is a traditional and simple viscometer for very precise measurements of Newtonian ﬂuids according to ISO12258 and DIN53015 in the temperature range À20 to 120.
Some plastics are mostly Newtonian (viscosity independent of shear rate); for Newtonian materials, viscosity is independent of the spindle speed and spindle type. On the other hand, some polymer materials are mostly non-Newtonian (viscosity dependent not only on shear rate, but also on time). For these materials, viscosity is dependent on spindle type and speed, and it is very important to deﬁne the test conditions carefully. Selection of the proper spindle and speed is critical to obtain accuracy and precision in viscosity.