By Yongwang Ding
This monograph offers suggestions to enhance the functionality of linear built-in circuits (IC) in CMOS at excessive frequencies. these circuits are essentially utilized in radio-frequency (RF) front-ends of instant conversation structures, reminiscent of low noise amplifiers (LNA) and mixers in a receiver and tool amplifiers (PA) in a transmitter. a unique linearization approach is gifted. With a small trade-off of achieve and gear intake this system can increase the linearity of nearly all of circuits via tens of dB. really, for contemporary CMOS strategies, so much of which has equipment matching larger than 1%, the distortion might be compressed through as much as forty dB on the output. A prototype LNA has been fabricated in a 0.25um CMOS procedure, with a measured +18 dBm IIP3. this system improves the dynamic diversity of a receiver RF front-end by means of 12 dB. a brand new category of strength amplifier (parallel classification A&B) can be offered to increase the linear operation variety and keep the DC strength intake. it's been proven by means of either simulations and measurements that the hot PA doubles the utmost output energy and decreases the DC energy intake by means of as much as 50%.
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Additional info for High-Linearity CMOS RF Front-End Circuits
Linearization in zero-memory weakly nonlinear systems The proposed linearization technique is a feedforward technique in which the unwanted harmonics are cancelled. Although the harmonic cancellation technique can be generally applied to the weakly nonlinear systems with or without memory, it is more intuitive to be introduced through the zero-memory systems. ,an are the power order coefficients, and C is the output offset1. HIGH-LINEARITY CMOS RF FRONT-END CIRCUITS Here, the output is assumed to be a function of the input only.
At high frequencies, especially at giga hertz, the AC current starts to crowd towards the edge of the metal; therefore, besides the metal width and length, the series resistance is also a function of the operating frequency and the metal thickness. This is called skin effect. 19 . 18. 19. 1 l -element spiral inductor model Although the 11-element model is more accurate to characterize an on-chip inductor, it requires more complicated extraction. For most narrow band circuits 9-element model is sufficient and is easier to extract.
At low input levels the r dharmonic contribution from the 5th power order is much less than that from the ydpower order, which is the normal case in most RF receiver circuits. However, for some circuits with very high input levels, the yd harmonic contribution from the 5th power order is comparable to or even greater than that from the 3d power order. For example, the input level for power amplifiers is typically more than -10 dBm. In such cases we have to consider canceling the gh power order as well.