By James E. Shelby
An creation to Glass technology and expertise offers the basic issues in glass technological know-how and expertise together with glass formation, crystallisation and section separation. a close dialogue of glass constitution versions with emphasis at the oxygen stability version is usually awarded. extra chapters talk about an important homes of glasses, together with actual, optical, electric, chemical and mechanical homes, and new to this variation, water in glasses and melts. Glass know-how is addressed in chapters facing the main points of glass uncooked fabrics, melting and fining, and advertisement glass construction tools. This elevated moment variation additionally comprises new chapters at the compositions and homes of industrial glasses and thermal research of glasses and melts. routines are integrated on the finish of the chapters. This introductory textual content is perfect for undergraduates in fabrics technological know-how, ceramics or inorganic chemistry. it's going to even be priceless to the engineer or scientist looking easy wisdom of the formation, homes and creation of glass.
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Additional info for Introduction to Glass Science and Technology (RSC Paperbacks Series)
Since the novice does not know that L may designate lanthanum in one glass and Li in another, the system becomes so filled with jargon that it is incomprehensible to the outsider. 4 BATCH CALCULATIONS Glass batch calculations can range from very simple to very complex, as a function of the complexity of the composition and the raw materials used to prepare the mixture. Batches containing only oxides in their exact state as expressed by the glass formula, for example, involve very simple calculations, while batches using a number of different minerals, where a glass component may be present in two or more raw materials, require much more complicated calculations.
Borate, phosphate, and germanate melts can be formed at much lower temperatures than are typically required for silicate melts. , an increase in temperature from 1000 to 1200 "C is more easily attained than an increase from 1400 to 1600 "C. Glass Melting 37 The choice of batch components is also important in controlling batch-free time. Many batch components can be supplied from a variety of raw materials. Since the different sources of a given component may have very different melting temperatures, the production of the initial liquid is highly dependent upon the choice of raw materials.
As the temperature decreases further, AGvwill increase, thus decreasing the value of the critical radius. Eventually the critical radius will become so small (often only a few tenths of a nanometer), that the probability of formation of a nucleus large enough to exceed the critical radius will become significant, and nuclei will begin to be formed in detectable quantities. Since a significant degree of undercooling, which may be as little as a small fraction of a degree, or as much as a few hundred degrees, must occur before the critical radius decreases to the point where detectable nuclei exist in the melt, a metastable zone of undercooling exists.