By Alexander Tzagoloff (auth.)
In penning this ebook, i discovered the alternative of an appropriate name to be a such a lot vexing challenge. Lehninger's very good previous monograph The Mitochondrion had already appropriated within the area of library playing cards what seemed to be the main becoming description of the subject material. as soon as the textual content was once accomplished, besides the fact that, it grew to become visible that pluralization used to be the easiest strategy to this issue. adaptations within the constitution and serve as of this organelle and up to date discoveries of the phylogenetic range within the association and genetic con tent of its DNA all appeared to justify the concept there are as many alternative mitochondria as there are mitochondriologists. although my preliminary goal was once to supply complex undergraduate and graduate scholars of phone biology with supplemental studying fabric on issues often handled in a cursory demeanour via most traditional texts, necessarily the scope used to be broadened to draw the curiosity of extra pro readers who could be accustomed to a few yet now not different parts of mitochondrial reports. Con sistent with the unique goal, literature citations were stored to a minimal and are shunned more often than not physique of the textual content for reasons of readability.
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2. Enoyl-CoA Hydratase The hydratase is a soluble protein with a molecular weight of 100,000. The enzyme shows a broad specificity towards varying chain length fatty acyl-CoAs. a-hydroxyacyl-CoA. 3. a-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase is equally active with short- and long-chain acyl-CoAs. a-ketoacyl-CoA. The acceptor for the reducing equivalents is NAD+. a-oxidation, therefore, produces NADH that can be oxidized by the electron transfer chain. 4. a-oxidation is a thiolytic cleavage of the ketoacyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and a two-carbon-shorter acyl-CoA.
Being the natural substrate for the enoyl-CoA hydratase (see above]. can then be further degraded by the ,8-oxidation pathway. 2. Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Fatty acyl-CoAs with an odd number of carbons are oxidized by the ,8oxidation pathway to propionyl-CoA. This compound is carboxylated to Dmethylmalonyl-CoA. a reaction catalyzed by propionyl-CoA carboxylase. 6] COOH A racemase converts the D to the L isomer. Finally. L-methylmalonyl-CoA is isomerized to succinyl-CoA which. after deacylation.
The particles face the matrix side and are attached to the inner membrane by means of thin stalks 50 A in length and 20-25 A in width (Fig. 14). The negative stain also reveals a fine structure in the membrane itself which appears to consist of a linear array of globular particles that have a cross-membrane dimension of 50-60 A. " This term, however, was later dropped, and they are now usually referred to as inner membrane spheres or headpieces. Following their discovery, the particles were thought to contain the entire assembly of the respiratory enzymes.