Download Molecules and Life: An Introduction to Molecular Biology by Mikhail V. Vol kenshtein PDF

By Mikhail V. Vol kenshtein

acids. The achievements of molecular biology testify to the luck of fabric technology in a realm which, until eventually lately, seemed completely enig­ matic and mysterious. additional medical advancements may still convey to mankind immense advancements either in theoretical wisdom and in functional functions, specifically, in agriculture, drugs, and know-how. the aim of this e-book is to provide an explanation for molecular biophysics to all who may desire to find out about it, to biologists, to physicists, to chemists. This ebook comprises descriptive sections, in addition to sections dedicated to rigorous mathematical remedy of a couple of difficulties, a few of which were studied by means of the writer and his collaborators. those sections will be passed over in the course of a primary analyzing. every one bankruptcy has a specific bibliography. This ebook is much from an exhaustive treatise on molecular biophysics. It offers mostly with questions regarding the constructions and capabilities of proteins and nucleic acids. M. V. Vol'kenshtein Leningrad, September, 1964 CONTENTS bankruptcy 1 Physics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Physics and lifestyles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Molecular Physics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three Molecular Biophysics ................................... nine Thermodynamics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . details conception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . . . . bankruptcy 2 Cells, Viruses, and Heredity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . . . The residing cellphone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . . . . . . cellphone department. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . Viruses and Bacteriophages ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty four . . . . easy legislation of Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . Mutations and Mutability ........ , ................. " . . . . 60 Genetics of micro organism and Phages " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty six . . . . . . bankruptcy three organic Molecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine . . . . . . . . . . Amino Acids and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine . . . . . . . . Asymmetry of organic Molecules ....................... 87 basic constitution of Proteins ............................ ninety four Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred and one . . . . . . . . . . . . a few Biochemical procedures within the mobilephone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . bankruptcy four Physics of Macromolecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . .

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The first two phosphate bonds are energy-rich. Storage of energy in any other compound, for example, in glucose, takes place with a participation of ATP, which becomes dephosphorylated to ADP. Above, we wrote out only the total reaction for the formation of glucose; in actuality, it passes through a whole series of intermediate steps. ~N/ ~ N / H C -N~ C-H 'N/ \ 0 /I 0 / / I I 0- H-C-C-H I OH II 0 II CHz-O-P-O-P -O-P-O- H-C , / " C-H \ 0 OH Fig. 5. Structure of ATP. I 0- I 0- THE LIVING CELL 31 chemical work.

In the metaphase (Fig. We), the chromosomes are displaced toward the equator of the cell. During the anaphase (Fig. 1Of), the double chromosomes divide and move to the opposite poles. Finally, in the final stage of mitosis, in the telophase (Fig. 109), the chromosomes again lose their spiral structures and again nuclear membranes and nucleoli are formed. Each centriole has "given birth" to a progeny. The division and formation of a new intercellular membrane and the two newly formed cells are now present in the state of the interphase.

6. 2 The cell is surrounded by a membrane which has a thickness of about 80 A, that is, 8 x 10- 7 cm. The membrane consists of proteins and lipids the molecules of which are distributed in the form of ordered layers; between two layers of lipids there is a layer of protein. It would seem that 32 CELLS, VIRUSES, AND HEREDITY Fig, 6. Modern schematic drawing of the structure of the cell based on electron-microscope information. (From "The Living Cell," by Jean Brachet, ~1961 by Scientific American, Inc.

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