By Hamid R. Rategh
There was an expanding call for for instant neighborhood region community (WLAN) structures some time past few years. New frequency bands are allotted and new criteria are being constructed to deal with better info charges. the short development of CMOS scaling has supplied a chance for the improvement of budget friendly built-in WLAN platforms. Frequency synthesizers are one of many major construction blocks of instant transceivers. The excessive frequency electronic frequency dividers in a phase-locked loop (PLL) dependent frequency synthesizer are one of the such a lot demanding blocks to layout and customarily account for a wide percent of the synthesizer overall energy dissipation. The profitable layout and integration of a excessive frequency PLL calls for a entire figuring out of instant platforms, RF circuits, and loop balance matters. Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis & department begins with an summary of WLAN structures and stories the WLAN industry and criteria. It then experiences PLLs as a necessary development block of WLAN receivers, and presents instructions and engineering recipes for the layout of loop filters in excessive frequency PLLs. also, the publication investigates varied analog and electronic frequency department ideas and introduces injection-locked frequency dividers (ILFDs) as an substitute for traditional frequency dividers. eventually, the publication demonstrates a profitable layout of a completely built-in CMOS frequency synthesizer for a five GHz WLAN receiver. Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis & department might be of curiosity to RF and high-speed analog circuit designers and scholars in addition to instant engineers.
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Additional resources for Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis & Division
Low spurious sideband amplitudes are an important requirement for frequency synthesizers. Fig. 3 pictures the problem of spurious sidebands. Suppose the synthesized LO is a pure sinusoid plus unwanted spurs at offset frequencies equal to the channel spacing. In the receiver the unwanted spurs act as parasitic LO signals that can downconvert the adjacent channel, into the same intermediate frequency (IF) as the de- 16 MULTI–GHZ FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS & DIVISION sired channel and thus degrade the signal to interference ratio.
This additional pole increases the PLL order to four. 3 for noise calculation. 4. Fourth order PLL Fig. 12 shows the circuit implementation of the loop filter in a fourth order PLL. In this case the impedance of the loop filter is: where The phase margin is where is the crossover frequency of the loop transmission. 29) with respect to is zero. The crossover frequency for the maximum phase margin in a fourth order PLL is Finally for ing equation. to be the crossover frequency it should satisfy the follow- 32 MULTI–GHZ FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS & DIVISION As in a third order loop the maximum phase margin is not a function of the absolute values of the R’s and C’s; it is only a function of their ratios.
Digital frequency dividers A digital frequency divider is in principle a counter. The main advantage of digital dividers over their analog counterparts is that they can be readily designed for variable division ratios and are easily cascaded to generate very large division ratios. General characteristics of these di- 42 MULTI–GHZ FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS & DIVISION viders are that they are wideband and their power consumption increases with the frequency of operation. 1 shows a specific example of a divide–by–two frequency divider.