Download Norman Stone Castles 2 : Europe 950-1204 by Christopher Gravett PDF

By Christopher Gravett

Following the production of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans have been quickly brought to the citadel and so they equipped them in huge numbers. within the mid-11th century, different Norman adventurers started carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: a few crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by means of 1091 had conquered the total island. As in Normandy, they have been willing to assimilate new rules, together with architectural kinds, leading to a few awesome structures. This name, a significant other to fort thirteen: Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, offers a close consultant to the castles in-built Normandy, Southern Italy and Sicily, masking protective rules, way of life, the occasions of siege conflict, and the destiny of the castles.

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Extra info for Norman Stone Castles 2 : Europe 950-1204

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At Barneville the chamber-block of the 13th century crossed the high end of the hall but was only accessed via an external stair. It is not known if a second chamber stood above the services at the lower end, as would become common. The 11th-century Exchequer at Caen with its gable door parallels Rufus's Westminster Hall in London. The door at Beaumont is not known but at Creully it is on the extreme south of the aisle. This allows the development of the screens passage across the end of the hall, perhaps the earliest being at Oakham castle hall in England.

In 1105 he did the same in the Cotentin, but also attacked Bayeux, which he burned, and Caen, which surrendered peacefully. In 1106 he came for the third time, besieged Tinchebrai castle and was then brought to battle there by the advance of his brother, Robert, who was defeated. Once more many castles had been taken by diplomacy rather than force. But Henry also used siege-castles on occasion. Orderic mentions one at the siege of Vatteville-Ia-Rue in 1123-24 'against Galeran de Meulan, to prevent foraging in the forest.

Usually an incendiary-arrow RIGHT 42 was made by wrapping some form of cloth or tow around the shaft and setting light to it, the tell-tale smoke trails marking the progress of the missile. Now, however, the heated heads left no trail and, once lodged within the wood, they set fire to it. The defenders realised too late, and the flames took hold. Orderic was obviously impressed by this shrewd use of incendiary materials, calling it 'ingenious', which may indicate that the outer defences were also of stone, as shown here.

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