Download On Aristotle Physics 2 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) by Philoponus PDF

By Philoponus

Ebook 2 of the Physics is arguably the easiest creation to Aristotle's paintings, either since it explains a few of his imperative ideas, similar to nature and the 4 factors, and since it asks a few gripping questions which are nonetheless debated this present day: Is likelihood anything genuine? if that is so, what? Can nature be defined by accident, necessity and ordinary choice, or is it purposive?
Philoponus' remark is not just a priceless consultant, but in addition a piece of Neoplatonism with its personal perspectives on causation, the windfall of Nature, the matter of evil and the immortality of the soul.

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Extra resources for On Aristotle Physics 2 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)

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For even matter is a source of movement and rest in this way: form being indivisible according to its own definition (logos), matter becomes a cause of division and separation for it, and separation is a [kind of] movement, and since it separates the form but does not separate it to infinity but up to a certain point, for this reason it is also a source of stability. And form too is a source of change and rest. For since not all things change with the same changes, but different ones with different changes (for some change with all changes, others with [only] some, and some with one set of changes, others with another), and [since] matter is not [the] cause (for matter is common to them all), it is presumably very clear that form is [the] cause of the difference in the changes.

E. that which is extended in three [dimensions], is other than flesh and bone and all the rest of the forms, being qualityless in itself. So how can he say that the forms cannot be separated from the substrate even in thought? He himself at any rate in [his work] On Generation says that flesh and bone and all natural things are spoken of in three ways, sometimes in the sense of the matter, sometimes in that of the form, and sometimes in that of the combination, implying that he separates the forms from the matter in thought.

Even more concerned with particulars than this is Euclid's Phaenomena and in general the whole of astronomy; for here the substance itself is thought of as well, since he calculates in addition the movement of the heaven and of the sun and the rest of the stars; for he does not consider simply the movement of a sphere but that of the sphere of the fixed stars or of Saturn or some other sphere, and the relation of these to each other. The highest part of mathematics is easy to distinguish and separated from the study of nature; examples are Theodosius' work On Spheres and Euclid's thirteen books on arithmetic; for in these there is absolutely no mention of matter.

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