By Frank P. Stuart
Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL. Pocket-sized handbook for college students, citizens, and practitioners; addressing immunologic recommendations, immunosuppression, organ allocation within the united states, organ procurement enterprises, transplantation, anesthesia for organ transplantation, scientific difficulties and issues, and extra. prior version: c2000. Softcover.
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This leads to B cell triggering and internalization of the antigen. 156 Immunologic Concepts 21 The result is that a signal for B cell triggering is delivered, activating intracellular pathways which include the calcium-dependent pathway. To recruit antigen-specific T cell help, B cells must present peptides of allogeneic MHC antigen in the groove of its class II antigens. To accomplish this, the allogeneic MHC antigen bound by sIg is endocytosed, through proteins around the receptor termed α and β,156 and presented as peptides in the class II groove of the B cell.
Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been demonstrated in the EC plasma membranes and may act locally on adhering leukocytes. 175,176 Other influences include eicosanoids such as the vasodilator prostacyclin (PGI2) or the vasoconstrictor thromboxane. 177 It is likely that the balance between these two forces contributes to the complex vasomotor changes such as arterial vasoconstriction and capillary leak in acute rejection. 172 These include IL-1α, IL-6, PAF, various chemokines (see below), M-, G- and GM-CSF.
Once there, some leukocytes undergo proliferation within the graft, particularly the clones of lymphocytes which encounter their cognate antigens. Others, such as macrophages, undergo activation and immobilization in response to the products of activated T cells. ENDOTHELIAL CELLS (EC) Far from being inert lining cells, EC can act as antigen presenting cells171 and can respond to many stimuli. 172 They interact with leukocytes through their adhesion molecules, including E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, ICAM-2 and VCAM-1.